lpmp banten AN ESSENTIAL PART OF CONTINUING PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT (CPD) – REFLECTIVE TEACHING (An Analysis with Literature Study and Observation) – LPMP Banten

AN ESSENTIAL PART OF CONTINUING PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT (CPD) – REFLECTIVE TEACHING (An Analysis with Literature Study and Observation)

PELAKSANAAN KEGIATAN ROADSHOW LPMP BANTEN 2018
January 31, 2018
PENERAPAN TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT DALAM PENDIDIKAN Sebuah Tinjauan Teoritis
February 1, 2018

AN ESSENTIAL PART OF CONTINUING PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT (CPD) – REFLECTIVE TEACHING

(An Analysis with Literature Study and Observation)

Trubus Irhamullah

Widyaiswara LPMP Banten

 

 


Introduction

Educational services in Indonesia are dynamic and always interesting for people to discuss from time to time. The particular one is the government’s educational services. Teaching is one of educational service aspects which are provided and it is also one of the main aspects to measure the success of a whole educational service. During this decade, the stakeholders focus on discussing Continuing Professional Development (CPD) for teachers (Indonesia: Pengembangan Keprofesian Berkelanjutan – PKB) as the government establishes CPD to assure the educational improvement.

As defined by the handbook of the British Council 2011 that CPD is a process that helps teachers and managers meet the challenges of their work and achieve their goals, (British Council 2011 – Going Forward: Continuing Professional Development for English Language Teachers in the UK, portal for UK ELT). CPD points out how to manage steps to solve problems in class. Referring to materials of lesson, language teachers find out that situation and nuance are different from math teachers. Yet, following the term of CPD, teachers are aware of the same philosophical performance or service to students, even characteristics of CPD.  Harding in the handbook above suggests that the characteristics of CPD are that it is:

  • continuous – professionals should always be looking for ways to deal with new challenges and improve performance
  • the responsibility of the individual teacher – who identifies his or her own needs and how to meet those needs
  • evaluative rather than descriptive – so that the teacher understands the impact of the activity
  • an essential component of professional life, not an extra, Keith Harding (2009)

 

The exploration above leads us to focus on learning in class. A teacher plays an important role in this situation. Teachers are obliged to provide best methods. Yet, these cannot guarantee that the results (students’ achievement) improve. There is a step which needs a readiness to improve the learning / success of study. It is reflection. By teaching reflectively, a teacher will be aware of her strengths and weaknesses and get started her better quality improvement immediately whereas her students will always be kept on learning through various kinds of study, such as: recalling, giving feedback, etc. this phenomenon is described briefly by the handbook, “as well as those of their learning centre, the CPD incorporates the idea of ‘reflective practice’ – the importance of reflecting upon what you are doing as an essential part of the development process” (The British Council – 2011). In this essential point, reflection is to maintain the CPD runs well.

 

  1. The Success of Teaching Started by Reflective Practice

Moore (2004) stated that a teacher provides an influence in a lesson and a ‘good’ teacher plays a role in a discourse. That is why, essentially, teaching could be an activity which is particularly aimed to make the class change. The term ‘change’ means the impact of an influence which implies that the teacher promotes new knowledge acquisition. When teaching does not change the class, it means there is no new knowledge gained by students. In classroom, when a teacher presents a subject, she aims to change her students. The evidence of change is indicated through acquiring new knowledge or strengthening the already possessed knowledge by students from the teaching in a lesson. But teachers may recognize that their lesson does not change their students and feel that they do not give new knowledge or advance their students the current knowledge within the lesson. They may then ask what they need to do to students make the class change.

Failure to provide new knowledge or to advance the current knowledge to students may happen to either newly qualified teachers or to experienced teachers. There could be some factors influencing this situation. These factors are for example inadequate preparation and incompetence within the subject. In this situation, teachers need to overcome these problems. There could be various strategies to be used. One of the strategies could be reflective practice. Reflection is done in order to be aware of the weakness then finding solution could be good for them. This discourse looks at reflective practice among teachers and the phenomenon is supported by some evidence I investigated.

 

  1. Exploring the Terms of Reflection and Reflective Teaching

Naturally, reflection will engage awareness, self-appraisal and change(s). There are some definitions of the word reflection. Reflection can be a recognition which arises in a perplexing situation faced by the practitioner and this is a dialectical process which will lead to another process in the practitioner’s thoughts (Kemmis, 1985; Zeichner & Liston, 1996; LaBoskey, 1994). In this situation, being aware is something which must happen to enable progressions to the next process. This awareness is aimed at keeping in touch with what is of concern to the practitioner. Moreover, reflection can empower a practitioner to make changes. This empowerment can be in the forms of recalling, analyzing a past event, predicting a future event and being aware of what is happening.

In a lesson, a teacher can be perplexed because of factors such as: inadequate lesson planning, limited understanding of the lesson, and the great number of students in the class. This commonly emerges as a reaction from the teacher to reflect in order to engage the class in the lesson. Two of the things the teacher usually does are trying to find out the best method and adjusting her behavior.

Within a lesson, a teacher could reflect more than once as she experiences a perplexing situation – i.e. before, during or after teaching. In a case when a teacher has no time to prepare the lesson then it could be predicted she will reflect before the lesson. As said by Schon (1983, in Zeichner & Liston, 1996, p 14) reflection can be seen in two time frames, i.e. before and after an action. In teaching, reflection-on-action occurs before a lesson when we plan for and think about our lesson and after when we consider what occurred. Reflection can also occur during the action. Frequently, practitioners attempt to frame and solve problems on the spot. When teaching, we often encounter an unexpected student reaction or perception. While we are teaching we attempt to adjust our instruction to take into account these reactions. Schon called this reflection-in-action. According to Schon (in Zeichner & Liston, 1996), reflective practitioners reflect both “in” and “on” action. Based on this terminology, I will explore and analyze the data by looking at the three different types of reflection – ie before the lesson, during and after the lesson.

Exploring the use of reflection by teachers requires understanding what reflective teaching is. According to Pollard & Tann (1987), there are four essential characteristics of reflective teaching: (1) engaging actively with aims and consequences and engaging with means and technical efficiency; (2) combining enquiry and implementation skills with attitudes of openmindedness, responsibility and wholeheartedness; (3) implemented/applied through proceeding cyclically or spiraling process, in which teachers continually monitor, evaluate and revise their own practice; (4) based on a teacher’s consideration/judgment, informed partly by self-reflection and partly by insights from educational disciplines.

The last essential characteristic of reflective teaching, as stated above, is based on the teacher’s knowledge background. One of the aims was to find out the impact of their own knowledge on their reflection. Schon (1983, in Pollard & Tann, p 10) states “When someone reflects-in-action, he becomes a researcher in the practice context.” One of the factors determining the extent they were researchers was their knowledge background.

Briefly, a teacher needs to do a number of things if she wants to practice reflective teaching. In general, the elements required for reflective teaching are clear planning, certain attitudes, clear control and being a knowledgeable person.

 

  1. Simple Observation

In this study, I investigated 20 teachers through questionnaire on reflective practice and observed an English class to find out the extent of the teacher’s reflective practice through an observation with its instrument. These two activities were carried out in two sub-districts in Banten Province. All respondents are experienced personnel and thus it was hoped that they are capable of making a significant change through reflective practice.

The instrument for observing class is structured with columns which ask for questions on: the content of materials on the lesson, the aim of lesson (basic competence of lesson), the extent of reflection-on-action, what kind of critical questioning delivered, and outcome & implication of the learning. The observer checked the aim of lesson whether they could be suitable with the materials, what the teacher could reflect when experiencing perplexed situation as the materials were delivered from session to session, were there critical questions to step on sessions then finding better situation to continue the session, and what outcome and implication by questioning or after reflection. The phenomenon is hoped to describe what factor(s) encourage the teacher success in helping students learn then we would say reflective practice is an essential factor in teaching. In other words, reflective practice was an essential factor in developing teaching performance (CPD).

Before doing the observation above, I investigated the issue of reflective teaching among the respondents through a questionnaire. To make the questionnaire operational and researchable, Cohen et al (2000) suggest that a research using questionnaire should follow some phases, such as: first, to establish the general purpose of this investigation which is clarified, translated into concrete aim, second, to identify the topics linked to the purpose, third, to follow the identification and formularize. Referring to steps of the phases, the general purpose of the questionnaire is to explore reflective practice among the respondents then this exploration was focused on some parts of their reflective practice such as: before, during and after their lesson. In each part, there are some questions asking the respondents about reflection they did either open-ended question or close-ended question. These questions asked them how to reflect and the impact with the reasons. Thus, in each part, there are some ways to reflect and the impacts (results) which will be categorized into three: respondents’ deeper understanding of students’ learning, respondents’ teaching practice to change and the class management to change. These results are to answer the key research questions.

The data are analyzed through categorizing responses to identify key themes. The key themes are reflection before the lesson (to reflect the previous lesson), reflection during the lesson and reflection after the lesson. Then the most frequent references to a particular topic within each group of respondents are noted. Other step is to identify themes across the groups and the most important theme for the whole group whereas the answers from the open-ended questions are analyzed and presented in some subheadings. Here is a brief description of the results.

  1. The Impact of Reflective Practice before the Lesson (reflecting the previous lesson)

On the matter of their preparation before the lesson, there were some ways which could be grouped into two. The first group concluded the respondents gained deeper knowledge on how the materials to be presented and the respondents gained deeper knowledge on how to motivate their students. These two results influenced the respondents to change their preparation in their teaching practice. The table below shows the mapping.

 

 

 

 

 

WAYS AND RESULTS FOR REFLECTIVE PRACTICE BEFORE THE LESSON

The Impact of reflective practice Numbers who selected  

THE WAYS

 

THE RESULTS

 

Respondents’ changing their practice (in teaching) 10 Recalling by thinking about the most suitable methods to be used to teach the lesson  

 

 

·     The respondents gained deeper knowledge how the content was to be presented (changing practice) in the lesson

 

 

·     The respondents gained deeper knowledge how to motivate their students so they changed their plan in practice of teaching

18 Recalling by thinking the intended chronological order of subtopics to be presented (based on the lesson plan)
1 Mapping the students the students classification
4 Recalling by predicting every single event in the lesson
7 Remembering pleasant things
2 Remembering unpleasant things
7 Recalling by thinking about some teaching tools which are necessary for the lesson
8 Recalling by thinking and imagining unsystematic presentation
9 Recalling by thinking how to motivate their students
Changing the class management 10 Recalling by acknowledging that a class consists of a large various number of students Rearranged content of the lesson which impacted to rearranging the class management

 

Table1. Reflection before the lesson

 

More deeply, these two results influenced the respondents to change their preparation in their teaching practice. The ways included in the first group were thinking the most suitable methods, thinking the intended chronological order of subtopics to be presented, thinking about mapping the students’ classification, predicting every single event in their class, remembering pleasant things, remembering unpleasant things, thinking some teaching tools, thinking and imagining some unsystematic presentation and thinking how to motivate their students.

Comparing “remembering pleasant things” with “remembering unpleasant things” is interesting. A tendency of teachers doing something pleasantly then they enjoy remembering it rather than unpleasant one. This is natural and normal even it can motivate them doing something better. By this, people or teachers hope to repeat it. The point in this phenomenon is that teachers want to get the pleasant things differently from the previous moments. More importantly, teachers need confidence to repeat it in different ways. Their success to change the class into the pleasant things was impacted by their experience and competence. This needs their awareness in order to help them introspect whether they are capable doing it.

Among the ways which impacted the respondents’ to change their preparation in their teaching practice, reflection through recalling chronological presentation was mostly selected. It was selected by 18 respondents. According to them the important reason to select this way was that the particular aim to teach was to help their students understand step by step about the materials presented and by using this way to reflect, they got a strategy to present their lesson and the strategy was different way of practice in teaching from before reflection. Also, “recalling chronological presentation” empowered them to know their weaknesses and strengths on teaching and this was their habit as it was considered easy and simple to do.

Among the ways mentioned above, reflection through mapping classification of their students was the least to select. It was selected by a respondent. It could be said that this way was considered to be a part of evaluation which would be available in the end of the session of the lesson whereas the respondents focused on how to carry out the lesson rather than how to evaluate it.  Yet, by this way to reflect, the respondent would change his practice in teaching, particularly, the way to evaluate his students. As all respondents knew well their students, they did not need to map the students or classifying them. They have known their students not only for some days but a semester or years. In other words, they have mapped some time before.

The second group of ways concluded the rearrangement of materials presentation in the lesson. This rearrangement changed the respondents’ preparation on the class management. In the second group, there was only a way to change it. It was recalling by acknowledging that a class consisted a large various number of students which needed to rearrange the class management. As this was their daily routine, they did not need to reflect by this way. They have done it before.

  1. Reflective Practice during the Lesson

During the lesson, the respondents stated that they got benefits to do reflective practice. The implementation of reflective practice during the lesson was grouped into three. The first group consisted of some ways of reflection such as: thinking about the progress being made in each subtopic so the respondents needed to stop for a few seconds, paying attention to the students’ attitude whether they understood their lesson, paying attention to the students’ understanding by asking questions of them (the students’ answers were feedback to which they reflected from), noting from their expressions whether they understood / responded and providing more attention to the low ability students. Below is the mapping of reflection during the lesson

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

WAYS AND RESULTS FOR REFLECTIVE PRACTICE DURING THE LESSON

The Impact of reflective practice Number who selected THE WAYS THE RESULTS
Respondents’ deeper understanding of students’ learning ·     4

 

 

 

 

·     11

 

 

 

·     9

 

 

 

 

 

·     7

 

 

·     5

·     Reflecting by thinking about the progress being made in each subtopic so the respondents needed to stop for a few seconds

·     Reflecting by paying attention to the students’ attitude whether they understood their lesson

·     Reflecting by paying attention to the students’ understanding by asking questions of them (the students’ answers were feedback to which they reflected from)

·     Reflecting by noting from their expressions whether they understood / responded

·     Reflecting by providing more attention to the low ability students

·     The students understood step by step

·     The students asked questions because they were curious

·     The students learned faster than expected by following the respondents’ instructions

·     Some students did not respond well

·     Indication to know students enjoyed the lesson: They smiled and nodded, by their cheerful faces, responded well, no students were sleepy, the students were enthusiastic, proactive, curious (asked for more time to be in class), harmonious, well-motivated,

 

Respondents’ changing their practice (in teaching) ·     8

 

 

 

 

 

·     3

 

·     7

 

 

 

·     4

·     Reflection by thinking the suitable methods influencing the duration of students’ engagement with the lesson

The respondents overcame the perplexity through reflection:

·     by thinking about possible helpful answers

·     By instructing students to discuss the questions while they were finding out the answer

·     Asking the students to find out the answer from parents or someone else then the answer would be the feedback to be reflected.

·   The respondents decided to develop a better teaching method

·   The respondents gained more knowledge and ways to handle the class

·   The respondents understood and changed the way to manage a class with working groups

Changing the class management ·     8

 

 

 

 

 

·     7

 

 

·     7

 

·     14

 

 

·     5

·     Reflection by thinking the suitable methods influencing the duration of students’ engagement with the lesson

To develop the lesson, the respondents reflected:

·     By remembering what their tutors in the training had said during the training

·     By recalling what they did in the classes during the training

·     By reflecting what their tutors, classmates did during the training

·     By reading the modules or references from the training

·   The respondents thought the class was progressing well

·   The respondents gained more knowledge and ways to handle the class

·   The respondents understood and changed the way to manage a class with working groups

Table2. Reflection during the lesson

 

 

The first group of ways above resulted their students’ five changes. The changes were the students understood step by step, the students asked questions because they were curious, the students learned faster than expected by following the respondents’ instructions, the respondents recognized that some students did not respond well and students’ attitude to enjoy the lesson (smile and nod, cheerful faces, well response, no sleepy students, enthusiastic, proactive, curious and asked for more time to be in class, harmonious with teacher and among them, well-motivated). It can be concluded that these five changes resulted or impacted the respondents’ deeper understanding of students’ learning.

Among the ways which impacted the respondents’ deeper understanding of students’ learning, reflection through paying attention to the students’ understanding by asking questions of them (the students’ answers were feedback to which they reflected from) was mostly selected. According to them, understanding the extent of their students’ learning is important. This helped them evaluate their own teaching performance. Here is an example of a dialogue in class to describe the teacher reflected her teaching through her clue (to keep on engaging with the context) and asking for an example:

T : The communication system has progressed, from the telegraph to the

internet, from old products to new ones – there has been great progress in

the internet era. It is dynamic, and instant. In these circumstances, what is

meant by mobile? If something is mobile, it means it………?

Ss : it’s portable, we can bring wherever we want.

T   : Ok good. It’s portable. So mobile communication is one of the fastest

communication systems. It is because of its instant use.

T   :  what is the communication system used for?

Ss : as office tools, used as the device in business projects, individual

activities, and in a family, there are more than a hand phone. We can

bring to anywhere

T:    Dian…! Give other example!

S (Dian): the MP3 – we can listen many songs in the MP3

On the other hand, reflection through thinking about the progress being made in each subtopic so the respondents needed to stop for a few seconds was the least voice to select. I think as long as the respondents carried out the reflective practice within paying attention to the students’ attitude they would get deeper understanding of students’ learning although some did not select thinking about the progress being made in each subtopic.

The second group consisted of two ways of reflection such as: the first, in the situation of non-perplexity, thinking the suitable methods which would influence the duration of students’ engagement with the lesson and the second, in the situation of perplexity, by thinking about possible helpful answers, by instructing students to discuss the questions while they were finding out the answer and asking the students to find out the answer from parents or someone else then the answer would be the feedback to be reflected.

The first step to overcome the problems during the lesson was by reflection, for instance, teacher’s perplexity which could be eliminated through reflective practice. Dewey in LaBoskey (1996) said that if perplexity happens to a teacher, she needs to control to get way out from the situation and by the background she needs to reflect. The respondents did ways out with two things, such as: first, the respondents’ thinking about possible helpful answers and second the respondents’ instruction to their students to discuss the questions while they were finding out the answer. Both ways gave time to the respondents to reflect about how to response the student.

These two ways led the respondents to develop a better teaching method, the respondents gained more knowledge and ways to handle the class and the respondents understood and changed the way to manage a class with working groups. It can be concluded that these three changes resulted or impacted the respondents’ teaching practice to change.

Here is a sample dialogue showing a reflection through recalling the past lesson when a respondent got a perplexed situation to start a new lesson. She needed to know how to provide apperception and to help her students adjust to new materials which were still linked to the previous materials – a step to lead to deeper dialogue.

T: Yesterday we talked about Text Report, Danu, what is the social text?

S  (Danu): It is..…(pause).…I think……eee…..

T: (Teacher leads to the incomplete answer) It is the way…(pause)….

S (Danu): It is the way things are.

 

The dialogue above was also to remind other students on recalling their past meeting as they knew the dialogue.

Among the ways which impacted the respondents’ teaching practice to change, reflection by instructing students to discuss the questions while they were finding out the answer and asking the students to find out the answer from parents or someone else then the answer would be the feedback to be reflected is the respondents’ preference to select. In this situation, the respondents considered a feedback from the students’ parents or caregivers were important.

The third group consisted of some ways of reflection, such as: thinking the suitable methods influencing the duration of students’ engagement with the lesson, remembering what their tutors in the training had said during the training, recalling what they did in the classes during the training, reflecting what their tutors and classmates did during the training and recalling the modules or references from the training.

The third group of ways above led to some changes. The changes were the respondents thought the class was progressing well, the respondents gained more knowledge and ways to handle the class and the respondents understood and changed the way to manage a class with working groups. It can be concluded that these three changes resulted or impacted the class management to change.

Among the ways which resulted or impacted the class management to change, reflection through reflecting what their tutors and classmates did during the training was mostly selected by the respondents. It was selected by 14 respondents whereas recalling the modules or references from the training was the least.

Her reflection during the lesson also triggers wider interpretation. She questioned a student as she interpreted that other students understood after exploring the answer.

 

  1. Reflective Practice after the Lesson

18 respondents contemplated after the lesson. They did it because of some reasons, such as: it was important for teachers who wanted to improve their teaching quality to reflect, they wondered whether there might still be some questions which the students had not asked and which needed to be explained later and to make them well-prepared for the next lesson. Below is the table showing their reflection after the lesson finished or on closing the meeting.

 

AFTER THE LESSON

The Impact of reflective practice  

THE WAYS

 

THE RESULTS

Respondents’ deeper understanding of students’ learning ·   By contemplating some seconds before leaving the class about what they had done in the class

·   By considering an event / incident in the lesson which they thought needed to be remembered or reflected.

·     The respondents acknowledged some students were low in ability or did not understand well then the respondents could contemplate to think what they had to do for the next lesson.
Respondents’ changing their practice (in teaching) ·     The respondents were certain that the principal methods they adopted were correct ·     To make them well-prepared in the next lesson

·     Make the respondents ready towards teaching improvement because they knew what to do based on the experience which was reflected

·     To make them well-prepared in the next lesson

Changing the class management ·     The respondents’ frequently doing contemplation after their lessons – make it as a habit ·     Trigger their thoughts to innovate the teaching / lesson

 

Table3. Reflection after the lesson

 

 

After the lesson, the respondents were investigated whether to do reflective practice through questioning them. The ways which resulted the respondents acknowledged some students were low in ability or did not understand well then they understood what to do for the next lesson were contemplating some seconds before leaving the class about what they had done in the class and considering an event / incident in the lesson which they thought needed to be remembered or reflected. It can be said that the two ways impacted towards respondents’ deeper understanding of students’ learning.

Other way of reflective practice which resulted they were well-prepared in the next lesson and they were ready towards teaching improvement because they knew what to do after the experience which was reflected was the respondents made certain that the principal methods they adopted were correct. It can be concluded that this way impacted or resulted the respondents’ teaching practice to change.

Their reflection after the lesson also triggered their thoughts to innovate the teaching or lesson. According to them, this was due to they frequently carried out the contemplation after their lessons and made this as a habit. It can be said that this way impacted or resulted the class management to change because the teaching innovation lead to change the class management.

After she had presented all the learning, she thought whether what she drove in class had run well. She reflected if students still needed strengthening on their arguments / understanding or students were able to judge something through evaluating question (with conditional question). Below is the dialogue in the meeting.

T               : Ok the next question: if you were a regulation maker, what would

you do ? …..ok Raise your hands! Come on, please! Rian? Dian?

What will you do?  Rian! Nobody wants to express their opinion?

Ok Andri…..

S (Andri) :  yeah….I would make….I would let students bring mobile phone

and they used only in break time.

 

  1. Conclusion & Recommendation

Reflection is that the practitioner looks into what he will do then he evaluates, the practitioner looks into what he did then he evaluates and the practitioner looks into what he is doing then he evaluates. Reflective teaching can indirectly improve teaching quality. It means reflective teaching assures or creates the situation to be ready to improve it. Reflective teaching can happen before, during and after the lesson.

Among the ways which impacted the respondents’ to change their preparation before the lesson, reflection through recalling chronological presentation was mostly selected by the respondents. Reflection through mapping the students’ classification was the least to select. It could be said that the teachers in their reflection focused mostly on how to present and structure their materials in order to finish their classes successfully. This will impact to improve class management and mapping the students’ classification. Conversely, doing and mapping the class management do not assure the structure and presentation success. Reflective teaching before the lesson will select the priority to be done.

During the lesson, their reflection focused on the students’ change into learning improvement. The result is that the respondents got deeper understanding on the students’ change, such as: the students understood step by step, the students asked questions because they were curious, the students learned faster than expected by following the respondents’ instructions, the respondents recognized that some students did not respond well and students’ attitude to enjoy the lesson (smile and nod, cheerful faces, well response, no sleepy students, enthusiastic, proactive, curious and asked for more time to be in class, harmonious with teacher and among them, well-motivated). Among the ways which impacted the respondents’ deeper understanding of students’ learning, reflection through paying attention to the students’ understanding by asking questions of them (the students’ answers were feedback to which they reflected from) was mostly selected. Understanding the extent of their students’ learning is another way to know the extent of the success of teaching.

Most respondents contemplated after the lesson. They did it because of some reasons, such as: it was important for teachers who wanted to improve their teaching quality to reflect, they wondered whether there might still be some questions which the students had not asked and which needed to be explained later and to make them well-prepared for the next lesson. Their reflection after the lesson also triggered their thoughts to innovate the teaching or lesson. According to them, this was due to they frequently carried out the contemplation after their lessons and made this as a habit. It can be said that this way impacted or resulted the class management to change because the teaching innovation lead to change the class management.

Reflective teaching needs variation in practice. Teachers in the area of secondary school should manage this variation through selecting and planning the dimensions of reflection in order to help them succeed in their teaching job. Due to the importance of reflective practice implementation, the respondents need to keep doing it in a framework called Continuing Professional Development (CPD). Within implementation of CPD, the reflection as explored above should be supported by those parties who have interests and authorization towards the respondents. This is a way to keep maintaining certificated teachers to meet the slogan of the certification, that is, to keep maintaining teacher’s quality and to support the educational service improvement.

Team of teacher evaluators (headteachers, Inspectors and mentors or supervisors) needs to cooperate with teachers on how to manage reflective practice which can encourage the teachers to innovate teaching practice. This concept can be started in a small area (a sub-district) as a pilot project. Being reflective teachers are beneficial for school development and potential to the capacity of a school to be a centre of learning. If a school wants to strengthen its best practice, it should empower teacher’s reflective practice. Indonesian Government, represented by the Ministry of National Education and Culture needs to follow up its educational reform through some strategic concepts. One of them is to pay attention to the statement of Zeichner & Liston (1996, p. 6):

Reflection is a slogan for educational reform also signifies a recognition that the process of learning to teach continues throughout a teacher’s entire career, a recognition that no matter how good a teacher education program is, at best, it can only prepare teachers to begin teaching. When embracing the concept of reflective teaching, there is often a commitment by teachers to internalize the isposition and skills to study their teaching and become better at teaching over time, a commitment to take responsibility for their own professional development. This assumption of responsibility is a central feature of the idea of the reflective teacher.

 

In the stage of the board above, maintaining the slogan above should be carried out firstly through establishing a unit in the level of organizational structure in the Directorate General to coordinate the availability of service for mentoring or supervising and inspecting the implementation of the slogan above. The implementation of the inspection, supervision or mentoring is on site by the LEAs and The Provincial Quality Assurance in Education (LPMP) as this is running now.

 

 

 

 

 

 


REFERENCES

 

Act of the Republic of Indonesia Number 20. (2003) National Education System. Jakarta: The Indonesian Government.

British Council 2011 – Going Forward: Continuing Professional Development for English Language Teachers in the UK, portal for UK ELT

Cohen, L., Manion, L., Morrison, K., (2000) Research Methods in Education. London: RoutledgeFalmer.

Directorate of Quality Improvement for Teachers and Educational Personnel and Directorate of College / Higher Education – Ministry of National Education. (2007) Guidance for Certification. Jakarta: Ministry of National Education.

Directorate of College / Higher Education – Ministry of National Education.

 

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